Then you're going to be OK All right, researchers at the University of Cincinnati


went one step further. 10:45 Not just saturated fat, not just trans fats, not just vitamin E, 10:48 but they said, 10:51 "What about color?" 10:53 Look at blueberries and grapes: that color that they have is dramatic. 10:58 And the colors of blueberries aren't just there to make them pretty, 11:01 those are called anthocyanins. 11:04 They brought in a group of individuals into a research study: 11:08 average age: 78, and everyone was already having memory problems. 11:13 And what they asked them to do was to have grape juice, a pint a day. 11:17 A cup in the morning, a cup at night. 11:19 Three months later, they tested everyone, 11:22 and their memory was better, and their recall was better. 11:25 Three months? 11:27 That sounds too easy. How can that be? 11:29 Well, think about it: a grape has a rough life. 11:32 A grape has to sit on the vine, all day long under the sun, 11:36 and exposed to the elements, and it has no protection. 11:40 Or does it? 11:42 That purple color, those anthocyanins 11:45 happen to be powerful antioxidants, just like vitamin E, 11:49 but they're the grape form, 11:51 and if you consume them, they go into your bloodstream. 11:55 And if that's true, it doesn't have to be grapes, 11:57 it could be anything that has that color. 12:00 Like blueberries. 12:01 So, back into the laboratory: 12:03 a new group of patients, they came in, they all had memory problems. 12:06 And three months on blueberry juice, 12:09 Their memory was better, their recall was better. 12:13 Now, the moral of the story is not to have grapes and blueberries, 12:16 and blueberry juice, and grape juice. 12:18 No, the answer is color. 12:20 If you look at the colorful foods, there's an important lesson there for us. 12:24 You walk into the grocery store, 12:26 and from a hundred feet away, looking at the produce department, 12:30 you can recognize beta-carotene, 12:34 lycopene, anthocyanins. 12:37 Your retina can detect them 12:38 because that's the orange color of a carrot, or the red color of a tomato, 12:43 or the purple color of a grape. 12:46 And the brain also tells you they're pretty, they're attractive, 12:50 you can recognize antioxidants, you're drawn to them. 12:53 So, back in 2009, my organization, 12:55 the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, 12:58 went to the Department of Agriculture. 13:00 We said, "This is important. Let's throw out the pyramid." 13:03 The pyramid was a nice shape, 13:06 but it had a meat group, and it had a dairy group, 13:10 despite the fact that people who don't eat meat or dairy products 13:13 happened to be healthier than people who eat them. 13:16 And also, who eats off a pyramid anyway? 13:19 We eat off a plate. 13:20 So, we devised a plate that said 13:22 fruits, and grains, and legumes - that's the bean group - and vegetables, 13:26 those should be the staples. 13:28 Well, we gave this to the USDA in 2009, and we didn't hear back from them. 13:33 So, in 2011, we sued the federal government, 13:36 the Physicians Committee filed a lawsuit against the USDA, 13:39 simply to compel response. 13:41 And did you see what the US government came out with in 2011? 13:44 I'm not taking any credit for this, 13:46 but this is now US government policy, it's called MyPlate, 13:50 and it does look in some way similar 13:52 to what we'd sent them a couple of years earlier. 13:54 Fruits, and grains, and vegetables, 13:56 and they have this thing called 'the protein group.' 14:00 The protein group could be meat, 14:03 but it could be beans, or tofu, or nuts, or anything that's high in protein, 14:06 it doesn't have to be meat. 14:08 In fact, there is no meat group anymore in federal guidelines. 14:12 There's a dairy group there, but to their credit, soy milk counts. 14:16 So, things are improving. 14:19 So far, what we've talked about 14:20 is getting away from the saturated fats, that's in cheese, and bacon, and meats; 14:25 getting away from the trans fats and snack foods; 14:27 you're having the vitamin E and the colorful foods; 14:30 and there's one more step. 14:33 It's not all food, there's something to say about exercise. 14:36 At the University of Illinois, 14:38 researchers brought in a large group of adults, 120 of them, 14:41 and they said, a brisk walk, three times a week. 14:45 After a year, everyone went into the laboratory for a brain scan.

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